The phenotypic legacy of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals.

Many modern human genomes retain DNA inherited from interbreeding with archaic hominins, such as Neandertals, yet the influence of this admixture on human traits is largely unknown. We analyzed the contribution of common Neandertal variants to over 1000 electronic health record (EHR)-derived phenotypes in 28,000 adults of European ancestry. We discovered and replicated associations of […]

Antiepileptic activity of preferential inhibitors of persistent sodium current.

Evidence from basic neurophysiology and molecular genetics has implicated persistent sodium current conducted by voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channels as a contributor to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Many antiepileptic drugs target NaV channels and modulate neuronal excitability, mainly by a use-dependent block of transient sodium current, although suppression of persistent current may also contribute to […]

Automated quantification of pancreatic β-cell mass.

β-Cell mass is a parameter commonly measured in studies of islet biology and diabetes. However, the rigorous quantification of pancreatic β-cell mass using conventional histological methods is a time-consuming process. Rapidly evolving virtual slide technology with high-resolution slide scanners and newly developed image analysis tools has the potential to transform β-cell mass measurement. To test […]

Putting pleiotropy and selection into context defines a new paradigm for interpreting genetic data.

Natural selection shapes many human genes, including some related to complex diseases. Understanding how selection affects genes, especially pleiotropic ones, may be important in evaluating disease associations and the role played by environmental variation. This may be of particular interest for genes with antagonistic roles that cause divergent patterns of selection. The lectin-like low-density lipoprotein […]